Effect of Smoking on Peridontal Health: A Comparative Study


  • Faisal Salim
  • Chander Kumar
  • Seeme Nigar
  • Sabeen Masood
  • Muhammad Asif Raz
  • Bilal Sarwar




Smoking, periodontal health, calculus deposition, oral hygiene


Objective: To determine the association between smoking and calculus decomposition among patients presenting at a
tertiary hospital of Karachi.
Study Design and Settings: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted at periodontic OPD Altamash Institute
of Dental Medicin,e Karachi for six months from 15- September-2021 to 15-February-2022.
Methodology: About 150 male patients of age 11 to 60 years coming for routine check-ups were included. Patients were
divided into two groups on basis of their smoking status. Clinical examination was performed for each tooth and presence
of calculus was evaluated using Oral Hygiene Index (OHI).The measurement of calculus was done by visual investigation
and tactile examination by using periodontal probe and mirror. For each individual, one tooth was selected from each
sextant and average OHI score is calculated. Supra-gingival calculus present near marginal gingiva was labeled as mild
whereas supra and sub gingival calculus with gum recession along with calculus covering more than half of tooth surface
was labeled as severe.
Results: Among 75 smokers, 44% had mild and 56% had severe calculus deposition whereas among 75 non-smokers,
86.7% had mild and 13.3% had severe calculus deposition. Odds of smoking among patients with severe deposition is 8.27
times higher than odds of smoking among patients with mild calculus deposition (OR=8.27, 95% CI=3.69-18.53) and
significant effect of smoking was observed on calculus deposition (p=0.001).
Conclusion: The study concluded that smoking has significant effect on calculus deposition. By taking smoking as a
discriminant variable it is proved that calculus deposition is higher in smokers as compared to non-smokers.


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How to Cite

Salim, F. ., Kumar, C. ., Nigar, S. ., Masood, S. ., Raz, M. A. ., & Sarwar, B. . (2022). Effect of Smoking on Peridontal Health: A Comparative Study. Journal of Bahria University Medical and Dental College, 12(03), 138–142. https://doi.org/10.51985/JBUMDC2021102



Original Articles