https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/issue/feed Journal of Bahria University Medical and Dental College 2022-04-01T07:06:13-06:00 Prof. Dr. Iqbal Hussain Udaipurwala Editor JBUMDC editor.bumdc@bahria.edu.pk Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Bahria University Medical and Dental College (JBUMDC) is a peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary biomedical Journal of Basic, Clinical and Allied Health Sciences (Print ISSN: 2220-7562 and Online ISSN:2617-9482 CODEN: JBUMB7). It was established in 2011 with the main aim to promote and disseminate high-quality research papers among the healthcare research community. It is published quarterly in January, April, July, and October.</p> <p><strong>It is recognized by <a href="https://hjrs.hec.gov.pk/index.php?r=site%2Fresult&amp;id=912636#journal_result">Higher Education Commission of Pakistan</a> (HEC)</strong></p> <p><strong>There are no processing and publication charges for article processing and publication.</strong></p> https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/872 Esthetic and Cost Effective Management of Young Female with Moderate Fluorosis Using Microabrasion; 2022-04-01T06:27:34-06:00 Umeed Jawaid umeedjavaid@hotmail.com Muhammad Rizwan Nazeer dr.rizwannazeer@gmail.com Ayesha Jawed ayesha689@gmail.com Meisha Gul meishagul@gmail.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">Primary concern of majority of young patients visiting dental OPD is compromised dental esthetics or dental pain.<br>Discolorations have significant social and esthetic effects. Fluorosis is one of the most common cause. It is prevalent in<br>different areas of Pakistan. Microabrasion was selected for treatment of discoloration in this case report. Microabrasion<br>was performed using slurry made by combining 37% phosphoric acid and pumice. This slurry was applied on the labial<br>tooth surface and mechanically rubbed with a prophylaxis brush in a slow hand piece for a minute, with gentle pressure.<br>The cycle was performed thrice followed by fluoride application. The results of this conservative treatment were satisfactory<br>and patient was satisfied with the esthetic outcome.</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Umeed Jawaid, Muhammad Rizwan Nazeer, Ayesha Zafar, Meisha Gul https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/862 Air Pollution and Health Hazards: A Menacing Situation in Pakistan 2022-04-01T04:57:15-06:00 Iqbal Hussain Udaipurwala iqbal.bumdc@bahria.edu.pk <p><span class="fontstyle0">With the increasing urbanization and industrialization<br>around the globe, the problem of air pollution is also<br>increasing exponentially. At one end it is causing depletion<br>of ozone layer and global warming and on the other side<br>responsible for health related issues</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iqbal Hussain Udaipurwala https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/873 Lack of Awareness About Obstetrics Physical Therapy in Pakistan 2022-04-01T06:31:33-06:00 Rabia Khan iamrabiakhan@gmail.com Muhammad Usman usman.bumdc@gmail.com Ghousia Shahid ghousiashahidabro@gmail.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">This letter aims to explain the role of obstetrical physical<br>therapy in pregnancy to highlight the awareness related to<br>physical therapy in Pakistan</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rabia Khan, Muhammad Usman, Ghousia Shahid https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/864 Effects of Chemical Composition of Cholesterol and Pigment Stones on the Gallbladder Mucosa 2022-04-01T05:00:31-06:00 Sanum Ali drdahri@gmail.com Shahid Rasul drrasul@gmail.com Surrendar Dawani Surru82@hotmail.com Sarah Zahid drsarahzahid@gmail.com Sehrish Hussain drsehrishhussain@gmail.com Ovais Sarwar ovaisqureshi92@gmail.com Tanweer Fatima dr.tanweerfatima@gmail.com Zainab Tariq Zainab.tpg@gmail.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">Objective</span><span class="fontstyle1">: To compare the effect of chemical composition of cholesterol and pigment stones on gallbladder mucosa.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Study design &amp; setting: </span><span class="fontstyle1">This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, BMSI,<br>JPMC, Karachi, Pakistan, from April to September 2021.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Methodology</span><span class="fontstyle1">: Total n= 120 gallbladder specimens were collected after cholecystectomies in 10% formalin. Gross<br>morphological features of gallbladder and stones were observed. Specimens were processed and 5µm sections from fundus,<br>body &amp; neck of gallbladder were stained and examined for microscopic changes. Chemical analysis of stones was carried<br>out to differentiate between cholesterol &amp; pigment stones.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results</span><span class="fontstyle1">: We evaluated different histomorphological alterations in gallbladder with reference to both type of gallstones.<br>Muscular wall thickness in pigment stone group was noted to be (143.89±78.66) and in cholesterol group (158.37±83.95).<br>Both pigment and cholesterol stone showed increased tendency of muscular hypertrophy. Mucosal ulceration, chronic<br>inflammatory cell infiltration, capillary congestion and hyperplasia (p-value: 0.04) were observed in both type of stones.<br>Statistical analysis showed that large cholesterol stones produce significant histopathological changes (p-value: 0.004);<br>greater the size of stone, more profound was the mucosal hyperplasia. Rokitansky-Ashcoff sinuses were predominant in<br>gallbladders with cholesterol stone.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion</span><span class="fontstyle1">: Gallstones cause series of histopathological changes ranging from chronic cholecystitis to pre-malignant and<br>malignant changes. Hyperplasia was observed to be more frequent with long standing, large cholesterol stones</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sanum Ali, Shahid Rasul, Surrendar Dawani, Sarah Zahid, Sehrish Hussain, Ovais Sarwar, Tanweer Fatima, Zainab Tariq https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/865 Frequency of Esthetic and Periodontal Complications in Patients of Metal Ceramic Fixed Dental Prosthesis 2022-04-01T05:35:27-06:00 Moiza Ijaz moiza91@gmail.com Saira Ibrahim i_saira@hotmail.com Ammara Sharafat ammara1390@gmail.com Sameena Younis fazsam24@hotmail.com Ayesha Satti ayesha.satti@hotmail.com Abdul Rehman abrehmankt@gmail.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">Objective: </span><span class="fontstyle2">To determine frequency of complications in patients with fixed metal-ceramic dental prosthesis<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Study Design &amp; Setting: </span><span class="fontstyle2">A cross-sectional study was designed and conducted on 141 post-treatment patients of Fixed<br>Dental Prosthesis (FDPs) at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Sept 2019 to Feb 2020.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Methodology: </span><span class="fontstyle2">This study analyzed the results of 141 patients whose records were completed during study duration of 06<br>months at Department of Prosthodontics, Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry, Rawalpindi. Patients were called at three<br>months follow up after provision of fixed dental prosthesis. Intraoral examination for presence of esthetic and periodontal<br>complications was done by inspection, palpation and probing. Complications were graded according to severity.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Esthetic complications with FPDs were observed in 13.47% (n=19) of the subjects, periodontal complications<br>were encountered in 9.2% (n=13) and 77.3% (n = 109) showed no complications at all. No significant difference was<br>observed in terms of type of complication encountered between males and females or between different age groups.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Complications in patients of metal-ceramic FDPs were observed in 22.7% patients only, of which 13.47%<br>were esthetic and 9.2% were periodontal complications.</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Moiza Ijaz, Saira Ibrahim, Ammara Sharafat, Sameena Younis, Ayesha Satti, Abdul Rehman https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/866 Anatomical Variations of Vermiform Appendix on Plain MDCT and Its Association with Acute Appendicitis in Adult Urban Population of Karachi, A Tertiary Care Hospital Experience 2022-04-01T05:42:46-06:00 Lubna Faisal DrLubna.Faisal@lnh.edu.pk Rizwan Ajmal drrizwan72@yahoo.com Fatima Rehman fatima.rehman@lnh.edu.pk Zia ul Islam Prof.Zia.ulislam@lnh.edu.pk Sadia Abdul Qayyum sadia.abdul@lnh.edu.pk Saima Athar Saima.athar@lnh.edu.pk <p><span class="fontstyle0">Objective: </span><span class="fontstyle2">To evaluate the anatomical positions of vermiform appendix and its association with acute appendicitis on<br>Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Study design and setting: </span><span class="fontstyle2">A cross sectional study based on hospital database was carried out in Department of Anatomy<br>in collaboration with Department of Radiology, Liaquat National Hospital.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Methodology: </span><span class="fontstyle2">A total of three hundred and six 306 adult urban patients CT axial images were evaluated retrospectively<br>over period of 6 months from March 2021 to August 2021 who had abdominal MDCT scan for acute abdomen after getting<br>approval from ethical committee to find out anatomical variations of position of vermiform appendix in a tertiary care<br>hospital among adult urban Karachi population and its association with appendicitis. Data was analyzed using SPSS version<br>25. All categorical variables were summarized as frequencies and percentages.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Result: </span><span class="fontstyle2">In present study 159(52%) were males and 147(48%) were females with mean age of 32.97 years. The subcecal<br>anatomical position of vermiform appendix on MDCT was most common n=85(27.8%), followed by postileal n=78(25.5%),<br>pelvic n=61(19.9%), postcecal n= 36(11.8%), preileal n=29(9.5%), ectopic n=17(5.6%). The association between appendicitis<br>with anatomical position of vermiform appendix and age was analyzed by chi- square and was statistically significant (p<br>=0.05). There was no significant association between position of vermiform appendix on MDCT and gender.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The subcecal position of vermiform appendix is most common on MDCT and the postileal position was more<br>frequent in the inflamed group of vermiform appendix</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lubna Faisal, Rizwan Ajmal, Fatima Rehman, Zia ul Islam, Sadia Abdul Qayyum, Saima Athar https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/867 The Effect of an Educational Intervention on COVID-19 Awareness, Preventive Behaviors, and Risk Perceptions among Secondary School Students 2022-04-01T05:51:23-06:00 Sadia Ibrar Khan sadiaamcolian@gmail.com Mohi Ud Din dr.md89@outlook.com Syed Fawad Mashhadi fawadmashhadi@gmail.com Shamaila Mohsin sm104177@hotmail.com Samreen Misbah samreen.misbah@hotmail.com Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed Khan www.niazirules@yahoo.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">Objectives: </span><span class="fontstyle2">To determine the impact of an educational intervention on secondary school students' Covid-19 awareness<br>and risk perception, as well as their preventive practices.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Study design and settings: </span><span class="fontstyle2">A quasi-experimental study conducted in private secondary schools</span><span class="fontstyle3">.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Methodology: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The study duration was two months. Students who gave consent and didn’t have COVID-19 infection in<br>past were included by non-probability purposive sampling. Raosoft sample size calculator was used to calculate the sample<br>size and it came out to be 385 but a total of 380 students could be enrolled. Among these, 37 responses were invalid making<br>the total sample size to be 343. Ethical approval was taken from the institutional ethical review committee with approval<br>letter number i.e. ERC/ID/126. SPSS version 25 was used for the analysis of data. Frequencies and percentages were<br>calculated. Paired samples T-test was applied to see the difference in participants’ scores before and after the intervention.<br>A p-value = 0.05 was taken as significant.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The knowledge of students were improved from moderate to high level and the total percentile score from 74.86%<br>to 89.76% after intervention. Their practicing preventive behaviors were at a low level with scores of 69.37%. Their risk<br>perceptions remained at moderate levels and did not see any improvement.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Participants practicing preventive behaviors were at a low level. Their knowledge scores improved from<br>moderate to high level after intervention but their risk perceptions remained at moderate levels and no change was seen</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sadia Ibrar Khan, Mohi Ud Din, Syed Fawad Mashhadi, Shamaila Mohsin, Samreen Misbah, Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmed Khan https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/868 Association of Resistin with Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Our Local Population 2022-04-01T05:59:55-06:00 Mozaffer Rahim Hingorjo Mozaffer.rahim@duhs.edu.pk Muhammad Noman Rashid Dr.nomanrashid@hotmail.com Naila Parveen m_naila72@yahoo.com Lubna Riaz lubna.riaz@duhs.edu.pk Riaz Ahmed Shahid rishahid@duhs.edu.pk Zainab Hasan zwchs@hotmail.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">Objective: </span><span class="fontstyle2">To investigate the association of resistin with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in our local population.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Study design &amp; setting: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Case-control study, Medical OPD; Lyari General Hospital Karachi (from 15</span><span class="fontstyle2">th </span><span class="fontstyle2">July 2020 till 15</span><span class="fontstyle2">th<br></span><span class="fontstyle2">December 2020).<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Methodology: </span><span class="fontstyle2">A total of 164 subjects (83 cases &amp; 81 controls) between the age ranges of 35-65 years were selected.<br>Subjects with metabolic syndrome were included in concordance with International Diabetes Federation criteria. Serum<br>resistin levels in both cases and controls were compared. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Eighty-three patients<br>with metabolic syndrome were enrolled and compared with 81 healthy unmatched controls. Obesity indices, blood pressure,<br>lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, insulin resistance and serum resistin levels were evaluated. Predictive values of resistin<br>for MetS were analyzed using odds ratios.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Significantly elevated levels of resistin were found in subjects with metabolic syndrome compared to healthy<br>controls (8.23±4.43 vs 6.82±3.64 ng/mL, p&lt;0.05). The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for metabolic syndrome in<br>subjects having higher resistin were: males:2.62[1.11–6.19], females: 2.81[1.05–7.49], all P</span><span class="fontstyle2">trend</span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt;0.05.For individual<br>components of metabolic syndrome, we found the odds ratio to be greatest for hypertension, fasting blood sugar, and insulin<br>resistance; 2.64, 4.83, 2.85, respectively, all P</span><span class="fontstyle2">trend</span><span class="fontstyle2">&lt;0.05.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The present study suggests significant association of resistin with components of metabolic syndrome such<br>as hypertension, fasting blood sugar, and insulin resistance. Compared to healthy controls, subjects with MetS had significantly<br>higher resistin levels. Further research is required to incorporate this biomarker in clinical setting.</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mozaffer Rahim Hingorjo, Muhammad Noman Rashid, Naila Parveen, Lubna Riaz, Riaz Ahmed Shahid, Zainab Hasan https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/869 Efficacy of Prophylactic Phenylephrine in Prevention of Hypotension in Parturient Undergoing Spinal Caesarean Section 2022-04-01T06:04:42-06:00 Muhammad Salman Maqbool muhammadsalman590@gmail.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">OBJECTIVE:<br></span><span class="fontstyle1">To determine the hemodynamic (pulse, blood pressure) stability of prophylactic bolus dose of phenylephrine in caesarean<br>section under spinal anaesthesia.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Study design &amp; Setting: </span><span class="fontstyle1">Interventional study was done from 13</span><span class="fontstyle1">th </span><span class="fontstyle1">Feb 2021 to 07</span><span class="fontstyle1">th </span><span class="fontstyle1">Oct 2021 at Islam Teaching Hospital,<br>Sialkot.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Methodology: </span><span class="fontstyle1">Study approval was taken vide letter no.2021-05/AN dated 26-3-2021, issued by Chairman Ethical Review<br>Board, Islam Medical College, Sialkot. Statistical software(version.3.1.9.2) with (prob of 0.80, critical </span><span class="fontstyle1">2 </span><span class="fontstyle1">value 15.08),<br>was employed and sample size calculated to be 200 cases i.e. groups-I (injection phenylephrine 100µgm) and group-II<br>(placebo) divided by lottery method into 100 each given at spinal neuraxial block. Primary study variable being heart rate<br>and blood pressure variations. Spearman’s Rank correlation statistical test was used to check interdependence between the<br>two variables i.e., systolic blood pressure and pulse rate. SPSS version 21 was used.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results</span><span class="fontstyle1">: In group-II, in 36% cases atropine was given as compared to 24% cases in group-I, thus 150 % more anti-cholinergic<br>was used in group-II. In group-II, in 33% cases top-up of injection Adrenaline 10 microgram was used whereas given in<br>24% cases in group-I, thus 137.5 % more top-ups of vasopressors in group-II. In group-I, heart rate decreased by value<br>of 9.02 % with respect to baseline value, while comparable reading noted was 3.42% decline in pulse rate in group-II<br>respectively.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion</span><span class="fontstyle1">: Prophylactic phenylephrine at time of spinal injection resulted in stable blood pressure and pulse rate values<br>in caesarean spinal delivery.</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Muhammad Salman Maqbool https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/870 Are Patients Satisfied with Healthcare Services in Hospitals? Which Dimensions Influence it? 2022-04-01T06:07:30-06:00 Neelam Jawed Qureshi neelamj.qureshi@gmai.com Inayat Hussain Thaver inayat.bumdc@bahria.edu.pk Omer Shahid omer199859@gmail.com Manahil Khalid manahil.khalid@gmail.com Zuhaib Arshad xohaib.khan123@gmail.com Munza Yusuf editor.bumdc@bahria.edu.pk Mashal Sarwar editor.bumdc@bahria.edu.pk Hafiz Hussain editor.bumdc@bahria.edu.pk Wara Fatima editor.bumdc@bahria.edu.pk <p><span class="fontstyle0">Objectives: </span><span class="fontstyle2">To determine the patient satisfaction with health care services provided in hospitals, disregard of whether<br>private or public<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Methodology: </span><span class="fontstyle2">A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from January to October 2020 who had utilized health<br>services from private or public hospitals. A questionnaire was used for assessing the satisfaction in various dimensions;<br>Likert scales were used for quantifying the level of satisfaction. A formal approval of ERC from the parent institution and<br>informed consent was sought. The sample size was 384 keeping the expected satisfaction at 50%; non-probability sampling<br>was done. Multiple variables were used to assess patient satisfaction. They were grouped into four thematic areas, and a<br>mean score was given to each.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Results: </span><span class="fontstyle2">The mean age of participants was 25.19 ± 6.99</span><span class="fontstyle0">. </span><span class="fontstyle2">More than half of the participants (59.9%) visited a private<br>hospital compared to only 27% visiting a government hospital. Overall, 257 (88.9%) participants were satisfied with their<br>previous visit. The satisfaction levels varied with various dimensions; with quality of doctor 73.2%; the environment and<br>basic facilities 76.8%; the process of seeking care - 57.4%; and with medicine and diagnostic facilities 67.4%.<br></span><span class="fontstyle0">Conclusion</span><span class="fontstyle2">: Three-quarters of the study population were satisfied with their last hospital visit. The perceived quality of<br>doctors, the ambiance and hospitals' general facilities make a difference in patients' satisfaction. The follow-up visits and<br>compliance with the treatment are influenced by how satisfied one is with the last visit.</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Neelam Jawed Qureshi, Inayat Hussain Thaver, Omer Shahid, Manahil Khalid, Zuhaib Arshad, Munza Yusuf, Mashal Sarwar, Hafiz Hussain, Wara Fatima https://jbumdc.bahria.edu.pk/index.php/ojs/article/view/871 Angry Gut: Irritable Bowel Syndrome 2022-04-01T06:21:05-06:00 Izrum Shafi Rajput izrumnafees@gmail.com Syed Ijaz Hussain Zaidi Col_zaidi@yahoo.com Muhammad Sajid Abbas Jaffri Drsajid.jaffry@live.com Syed Wajahat Hasib s.wajahat.hasib@outlook.com Kashif Razaq izrumnafees@gmail.com <p><span class="fontstyle0">Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the intestine characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel<br>habits. At present, no biological marker has been identified. Hence, the disease is clinically assessed on the basis of the<br>symptoms according to </span><span class="fontstyle2">ROME </span><span class="fontstyle0">IV criteria. Epidemiological data revealed that the prevalence of IBS varies widely around<br>the world, and more thorough research is needed to pinpoint any discrepancies that may exist between countries, as well<br>as possible reasons. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapy is being used in order to treat IBS. There is<br>no specific treatment for irritable bowel disease that has come across the patients and only possible measures have been<br>taken to treat the severity of symptoms. Symptomatic treatment with spasmolytic agent like mebeverine has been considered<br>a standard therapy to relieve pain but to deal with constipation and diarrhea different treatment modalities have been adopted<br>by the physician</span> </p> 2022-04-01T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Izrum Shafi Rajput, Syed Ijaz Hussain Zaidi, Muhammad Sajid Abbas Jaffri, Syed Wajahat Hasib, Kashif Razaq