Effects of Chemical Composition of Cholesterol and Pigment Stones on the Gallbladder Mucosa


  • Sanum Ali
  • Shahid Rasul
  • Surrendar Dawani
  • Sarah Zahid
  • Sehrish Hussain
  • Ovais Sarwar
  • Tanweer Fatima
  • Zainab Tariq




Cholelithiasis, Gallstones, Gallstone disease, Hyperplasia


Objective: To compare the effect of chemical composition of cholesterol and pigment stones on gallbladder mucosa.
Study design & setting: This comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, BMSI,
JPMC, Karachi, Pakistan, from April to September 2021.
Methodology: Total n= 120 gallbladder specimens were collected after cholecystectomies in 10% formalin. Gross
morphological features of gallbladder and stones were observed. Specimens were processed and 5µm sections from fundus,
body & neck of gallbladder were stained and examined for microscopic changes. Chemical analysis of stones was carried
out to differentiate between cholesterol & pigment stones.
Results: We evaluated different histomorphological alterations in gallbladder with reference to both type of gallstones.
Muscular wall thickness in pigment stone group was noted to be (143.89±78.66) and in cholesterol group (158.37±83.95).
Both pigment and cholesterol stone showed increased tendency of muscular hypertrophy. Mucosal ulceration, chronic
inflammatory cell infiltration, capillary congestion and hyperplasia (p-value: 0.04) were observed in both type of stones.
Statistical analysis showed that large cholesterol stones produce significant histopathological changes (p-value: 0.004);
greater the size of stone, more profound was the mucosal hyperplasia. Rokitansky-Ashcoff sinuses were predominant in
gallbladders with cholesterol stone.
Conclusion: Gallstones cause series of histopathological changes ranging from chronic cholecystitis to pre-malignant and
malignant changes. Hyperplasia was observed to be more frequent with long standing, large cholesterol stones


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How to Cite

Ali, S. ., Rasul, S. ., Dawani, S. ., Zahid, S. ., Hussain, S. ., Sarwar, O. ., Fatima, T. ., & Tariq, Z. . (2022). Effects of Chemical Composition of Cholesterol and Pigment Stones on the Gallbladder Mucosa. Journal of Bahria University Medical and Dental College, 12(02), 68–72. https://doi.org/10.51985/JBUMDC202195



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